Canadian Assessment for Learning Network Newsletter, 
November, 2020

Editor's Greetings

Katie White, Coordinator of Learning, North East SD, Saskatchewan
Greetings CAfLN community. We are grateful that you are part of our national network and that you are working tirelessly to investigate and apply assessment processes that nurture learning, especially during these challenging times! We know things are difficult and we appreciate that you are making time to read our newsletter amid all the other things you do. In this issue, we bring you perspectives that will inspire you. As always, we work to strike a balance between research and "boots on the ground" information. We hope you enjoy the voices of this month's contributors.

CAfLN and our partner organization, the Alberta Assessment Consortium, are working hard to prepare for our annual conference. This year, we are offering a three-part series, with the first date occurring on Nov. 21. The conference is virtual and is sure to be an amazing event! As always, the network is the focus of our shared work and meeting educators from across Canada is the very best part of this conference. Register on either the Canadian Assessment for Learning Network or the Alberta Assessment Consortium websites. We are so excited to gather together in a virtual community!

Be well everyone! We hope this newsletter brings joy and learning into your day.

Try This!

Conversation can be one of the best ways to collect assessment evidence in both face-to-face and online contexts. Use the template below to keep track of and make decisions based on emergent conversations.
Template from Unlocked: Assessment as the Key to Everyday Creativity in the Classroom by K. White (2019)

Assessment for Learning and Spirals of Inquiry: Teamwork for Deeper Impact

Linda Kaser and Judy Halbert
An important partnership
As you have read in another article in this Newsletter, CAfLN and NOIIE are partners in an application to the Social Science and Humanities Research Council to implement and learn from networks of educators and researchers who are deeply interested in making powerful assessment for learning strategies a way of life throughout Canada. From our perspective this is timely – and long overdue. Let’s start by congratulating Dr. Lorna Earl from CAfLN, author of Assessment AS Learning and Dr. Chris Deluca and his colleagues at Queens, as well as other academics from across the country who have come together to develop an initiative to provide assessment strategies and to research the impact of the strategies in a significant way.
As leaders of the Networks of Inquiry and Indigenous Education (NOIIE), we leapt at the chance to be part of this work. The networks have grown steadily in BC and the Yukon from their roots twenty years ago. Originally, school teams used formative assessment strategies combined with the use of provincial learning progressions in four significant areas – reading, writing, numeracy and social responsibility. Thousands of classroom teachers were involved in developing the learning progressions and thousands more became involved in applying AFL and inquiry in their classrooms, schools, districts and territories.
Dr. Lorna Earl and Dr. Helen Timperley, her friend and colleague from the University of Auckland, have been guiding intellectual lights to the networks in BC and the Yukon from the start. One important moment in developing the Spiral framework came from a mountain “think tank” where the four of us explored all the important ideas that we thought Canadian and New Zealand educators were being asked to learn - and we filled many pages of chart paper.
Then we set to work to pick the most powerful areas of focus. You may not be surprised that two of the most important areas we identified were assessment for learning and social and emotional learning. The work of Dr. Kimberley Schonert-Reichel and her colleagues in the consortium of social and emotional learning was very useful. The research and writing of Dr. Lorna Earl and Dr. Helen Timperley about assessment thinking became the second focus.
In BC we were concerned about the overuse of standardized test measures – especially when the measures were used to rank schools in league tables. We were highly motivated to develop a different way to “improve”. We had used a collaborative inquiry approach with the network schools right from the start in 2000. Annually, each school that participated
was asked to make their work “public” and their case studies were then published initially in print and later on the web.
Creating an inquiry framework
After a decade of exploration of learning progressions and the development and publication of thousands of case studies, we were ready to refine our thinking. Over a two-year period of collaboration with Dr. Timperley, we explored and deepened our respective learning about networks and adult inquiry cycles. In 2013, we wrote a book for BC educators, Spirals of inquiry: for equity and quality and in 2014 along with Helen Timperley, we published a monograph: A framework for transforming learning in schools: Innovation and the spiral of inquiry. We shared what we were learning widely and worked to make it as accessible as possible. In 2017, after working with a plain language specialist, we published The Spiral Playbook which is now being used globally.
As a result there are now inquiry networks across the world. Educators in a range of places including British Columbia, the Yukon, Sweden, Catalunya, Manitoba, New Zealand, England, Spain, China, Wales and Australia are applying the spiral of inquiry in deep and intentional ways.
The spiral of inquiry involves six key stages of scanning, focusing, developing a hunch, engaging in new professional learning, taking new professional action, checking that a big enough difference has been made and then re-engaging to consider what is next. Although the stages in the spiral overlap, paying attention to each aspect is critical in achieving the greatest benefit for all learners. At every stage, inquiry teams ask themselves three important questions: ‘What’s going on for our learners?’ ‘How do we know?’ and ‘Why does this matter?’
The first two questions prompt educators to check constantly that learners are at the heart of what they do, and that all decisions are based on thoughtful evidence from direct observations in addition to formal evidence sources. The third question helps to ground teams in the importance of the direction they are pursuing.

Scanning: What’s going on for our learners?
 We have learned effecting real change through collaborative inquiry starts by talking with and listening to young people using two key questions.
Starting with learners – Two key questions
Being curious about what is going on for our learners is at the heart of the inquiry process. When learners experience being listened to with respect, they feel valued and develop a greater sense of agency. As one Grade 6 girl said to her teacher, “This is my best day ever. No one has asked me about my learning before.”

1. Can you name two adults in this school who believe you will be a success in life?  
Kimberley Schonert-Reichl and her colleagues at the University of British Columbia developed the Middle Years Development Instrument, a survey with a series of indicators for student social emotional well-being that is now used in a number of jurisdictions. There are forty indicators on the survey that provide a lot of invaluable information. However, for the purpose of scanning, we want teachers to focus on areas that have the greatest impact and over which they can have control. With the advice of the SEL research team, we landed on this first big question (and one follow up):
“Can you name two adults in this school who believe you will be a success in life?” (and then if you get a positive response: “How do they show you?”)
There are number of critical points about this question. First, the evidence on resiliency indicates that one positive adult can be enough to keep a young person on track. For all our learners, and especially for the most vulnerable learners, we need to make sure that there at least two adults in the school who know, appreciate and encourage them.
Prior to asking this question, there needs to be discussion about the meaning of success in life. Teachers have found using personal stories, literature, short video clips and student experiences helpful in developing a wider picture of what success means.
What happens if the learner can’t name anyone? A sense of connectedness is so important that we do not need to complete a whole spiral before moving to immediate action. One of the most effective strategies is called the 2 x 10. If you discover a learner who does not think there is anyone in the school who believes in them, then you commit to finding two minutes a day for ten days in a row to connect with that child individually – about anything personal to them and not about anything to do with school. In many cases, this is enough to develop a connection and to change their sense of belonging.
The second part of this question is to name the specific behaviours of the adult that indicate their belief in the learner. The responses to this question initially can be a source of surprise. In our experience in many different schools, some common themes have emerged. One is the importance of specific communication to individual learners. Another is the positive impact of high expectations and teacher relentlessness in pushing for quality. Be curious about what your learners have to say – you may be surprised too. Finally, when you listen to a learner talk about the adults who are making a difference in their sense of self, please don't keep this information to yourself. Teachers appreciate hearing about strategies that work.
There are many ways in which these questions – and the student responses – can be used to build teacher curiosity. We were impressed by the response of teachers at one primary school where the professional learning meeting started with short video clips of students talking about the adults in the school who believed in them.
2. What are you learning and why is it important?  
Consciously strengthening social and emotional connections with each learner is a vital part of a powerful inquiry repertoire. It is also critical to ensure that each learner understands the purpose of his or her learning. There is a big difference between learners knowing what they are supposed to be doing and knowing why what they are learning is important. Just posing this second question starts to shift the focus from simply completing a task towards more purposeful learning.
Our experience is that learners are only able to answer this question when they are helped to find personal meaning in what they are learning. Without a clear sense of purpose, many learners become disengaged and lose their sense of curiosity even as they continue to jump through the hoops of schooling. For learning to be relevant and purposeful, young people need to be in an environment where clarity about the big learning intentions, the big ideas, the big learning goals or the big questions is evident.
Helen Timperley and John Hattie have written about the importance of feedback from learners to their teachers.  They point out that it is very productive to regularly find out from learners the answers to the following three questions: Where am I going in my learning? How is your learning going? What is the next step in your learning?

Years of experience with inviting educators to explore these questions have taught us to emphasize starting with this first two-part question: “What are you learning and why is it important?” If we don't get strong answers to this question, there isn’t much point in continuing to the next ones.

It is a concern when young people are unable to give full answers to this cognitive question. Our overall aim is to ensure that every learner can articulate what they are learning, why it is important and how it is connected to their lives. There is a big difference between being able to say what they are doing (‘we are doing erosion’) and why it is important (‘we are learning about erosion and how it impacts the sustainability of our island’).

As school staff members become more familiar with formative assessment strategies and adept in making connections between the curriculum and the lived experiences of their learners, rich answers are becoming the norm. Asking “what are you learning?”  as a general question can be interesting as you find out what is “sticking out” in the mind of the learner. It can also be helpful to ask the question more specifically: What are you learning about reading? What are you learning about thinking critically? What are you learning about the natural world? What are you learning through your community engagement work? 

During the scanning process knowing how many young people feel a sense of belonging and connectedness to adults in the building and then knowing how many understand what they are learning and why that learning matters are the essential starting points. Equipped with this close-to-the-learner information leadership teams can make much more informed decisions about productive areas of focus.

Once teachers and formal leaders start engaging with these questions the motivation to ensure that young people have a sense of belongingness and truly understand the importance of what they are learning becomes really significant. Many schools take a focus on assessment for learning strategies when they realize that their learners need to know more about what they are learning and why and how their learning connects with their lives.

Moving forward together

In our visits to jurisdictions at home and around the world we have found that those schools where assessment for learning is a way of life are those that truly stand out as terrific places for young people to live and learn. CAFLN and NOIIE share the goal of having EVERY Canadian school develop intellectually curious learners who know how to drive their own learning. Using our assessment knowledge along with the spirals framework can help us reach this goal – together and faster.

Earl, L. M. (2013). Assessment AS learning: Using classroom assessment to maximize student learning. Corwin.

 Halbert, J., & Kaser, L (2013). Spirals of inquiry for equity and quality. BCPVPA Publications.
* Copies available at: Sarah Lockman
Kaser, L., & Halbert, J. (2017). The spiral playbook. C 21 Canada Publications.
* Copies available at: Jennifer Harfield
Please note: all funds from the sale of spirals books are given as small inquiry grants to NOIIE schools doing Indigenous learning work.

Hattie, J., & Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of Educational Research, 77(1), 81-112. DOI: 10.3102/003465430298487

Timperley, H., Kaser, L., & Halbert, J. (2014). A framework for transforming learning in schools: Innovation and the spiral of inquiry. Centre for Strategic Education. Seminar Series Paper No. 234.

Get on Board with CAfLN Inquiry Networks

Lorna M. Earl and Justin Green

From the beginning, CAfLN has been dedicated to nurturing and sustaining Assessment for Learning in educational institutions in Canada. Our mission statement includes these statements:
  • Maximize professional learning by advocacy and implementation
  • Build relationships by collaboration and professional learning
  • Strengthen connections by networking and monitoring
  • Support and training by providing access to expertise
  • Share experiences by research and publishing
Covid19 has hastened some of the initiatives we have been planning and developing, including the upcoming virtual conference.  CAfLN Inquiry Groups, with grants to support them, is one of the most exciting initiatives we have launched.  You will have read about the SSHRC grant that has been submitted by Chris De Luca, with CAfLN and NOIIE (Network of Inquiry and Indigenous Education) in BC.  In anticipation of this work, CAfLN and NOIIE are working together to establish the first CAfLN Inquiry Groups, as a vehicle for Canadian educators to work together virtually to investigate assessment practices and theories, using the Spirals of Inquiry methodology developed by NOIIE. 

Two CAfLN Inquiry Networks are already forming (and looking for participants). 
  • Assessment for Learning In Mathematics: This is a participant-led inquiry into aspects of assessment in your mathematics classrooms. Working collaboratively, using the spiral of inquiry framework, you will have the opportunity to further develop your classroom practice in ways that matter to you. Facilitators Jimmy Pai and Martha Koch will prompt conversations, invite questions and provide resources. Jimmy is a secondary mathematics teacher who is actively engaged in transforming his classroom practice in order to better notice, interpret, and respond to all student thinking. Martha is a university-based educator and researcher who focuses on the ways that assessment can contribute to more effective mathematics teaching and learning. They are excited to learning alongside you as we all take another step toward ensuring that assessment supports every mathematics learner.
  • Imaginative Assessment Strategies in the Middle and Early Secondary Years: This is an experiential in situ practice-based inquiry on assessment. This group would like to challenge your thinking about “What is assessment?”. This is an invitation to engage in collaborative and co-constructive explorations of imaginative assessment in the Middle and Early Secondary classrooms. How do we adapt our teaching and assessment approaches to better reflect our learners? Facilitators, Christine Ho Younghusband, Mark Miller, and Denine Laberge, will guide conversations on the participants’ collective curiosity, wonderment, and imagination about learning and AfL. This inquiry group is about discovering and exploring imaginative assessment strategies. Christine is a teacher educator and researcher focused on Indigenous pedagogies and assessment; Mark is a facilitator and teacher-leader specializing in instruction, assessment, and technology; and Denine’s passion for assessment spans both the Middle and Senior Years within her experience teaching the humanities and mathematics.
If you are interested in joining one of these CAfLN Inquiry Groups, email Justin Green at

But that’s not all! CAfLN is excited to announce that, this year, we will be providing up to 6 grant opportunities (up to $1000 per grant) to CAfLN Inquiry Networks from across Canada to engage in purposeful inquiry about Formative Assessment / Assessment for Learning.   

The grants are intended to support educators using or planning to use the Spiral of Inquiry in the area of Formative Assessment / Assessment for Learning. Learning from inquiry processes must be shared with other educators and presented at a future CAfLN event.
To apply for a CAfLN Inquiry Grant, contact Justin Green at to receive the application form.

Assessment for Learning Online-Yikes!

Lorna M. Earl, PH.D, CAfLN Past President

COVID19 has catapulted teachers into unknown waters that they were only prepared to test with their toes.  On-line teaching is now a necessity for many.  And I’m impresssed, but not surprised, at the number of teachers who have adapted and learned at a monumental rate, even though, at best they feel like the proverbial duck looking placid as it swims and kicking like crazy just below the surface. 

As with all new approaches to teaching and learning, assessment in an online environment is also new and it can seem daunting.  CAfLN wants to help keep AfL at the forefront and to provide support and a forum for teachers to work together across the country to ensure that assessment activities are as powerful for learning as teaching activities. 

Because I’m retired, I have had the luxury of doing some research to find out what we know about online AfL. The good news is that it is really the same as AfL face-to-face, but facilitated electronically.  Why, because good AfL is good teaching.  So, here are a few sources that I’ve located in my search that you might find useful in your planning: from Western University provides evidence-informed answers to e-learning questions.  It offers a range of useful strategies for e-learning and a very good section on assessment.

No surprise that Tom Guskey has already addressed this issue in his clear and cogent way and he is presenting a free webinar later this month through the University of Houston.  The flyer is at  and you can register at .

Edutopia is another great resource with a range of accessible articles about AfL on line, and lots more. ;

The Northwest Education Association has also produced a range of resources
These few sources can give you an overview of how to transport your AfL practices into a virtual environment.  But having resources is not usually enough.  As you have read about in other articles in this newsletter, CAfLN is organising pan-Canadian CAfLN Inquiry Groups inquiry groups as a way for you to deepen your knowledge and share the journey with like-minded educators.  There are already 2 of these inquiry groups in place.  And there is a call in this Newsletter for more to be formed. What about an inquiry group dedicated to AfL in an on-ine environment.  Anyone up for it??

Great Links

Here are some additional links to a few amazing and interesting supports for assessment for learning:

Formative Assessment in Distance Learning by Andrew Miller

9 Ways Online Teaching Should be Different from Face-to-Face by Jennifer Gonzales

All Things Assessment Blog Multiple authors

Student or Learner?

Lana Steiner, Horizon SD, Saskatchewan

“What is the difference between a ‘student’ and a ‘learner’?”  I sat in the conference hall questioning whether this was simply a matter of semantics or if  the presenter was holding a golden nugget of pedagogy.  My curiosity was ignited.  I wondered how my students would respond to this question as I, myself, mulled it over in my mind.

The conference, as most are, was held on a Friday.  The question was omnipresent in my mind over the next two days so when I returned to work Monday morning, I asked my Grade 5/6 class, “What is the difference between a student and a learner?”  I anticipated a brief discussion, no more than ten minutes, where I would be working hard to mine thoughts buried deep in the recesses of their minds.  However, that was not the case.  Rather, they led and I followed, racing to record their thoughts.  After the brainstorm had been exhausted, I simply asked, “Which are you?”



I had no idea at the time how that conversation and the above chart would allow my pedagogy to evolve and how it would ultimately impact student learning.  What I came to realize as I worked with learners during small group instruction was that their learning was not inhibited by cognitive capacity.  Rather, it was connected to their ability to practice and embody the behaviours of a learner.  Those learners who struggled to accept feedback were the ones who were experiencing the least amount of growth.  Those who were learning from their mistakes were able to reflect and answer the question, “What do you know now that you didn’t know at the beginning of class?”  Those who were asking thoughtful questions were considering what they knew and what they didn’t yet know.  What I came to realize during this time was that the nature of my formative assessment was shifting.  I was already a huge advocate for using conversations and observations in mathematics as forms of both summative and formative assessment.  However, my formative assessment practice was evolving in such a way that I frequently began  referring to the chart highlighting the differences between a student and a learner to guide learning.  The purpose of the formative assessment was evolving beyond concept attainment to concept attainment AND developing life-long learners.  I began to realize that we (teachers included) practice the behaviours of life-long learners THROUGH the content of a particular subject matter.

As alluded to, this shift surfaced in my questioning and in my prompts.  I began noting which learners were having trouble accepting feedback.  I would tell them that it was my perception that they were struggling with this behaviour.  Then I might have asked, “What do you need to do to get yourself in a mindframe where you would be able to accept feedback?”  Or perhaps, “Is there something that we can do to prepare ourselves prior to accepting feedback if that’s something that we struggle with?”  Asking learners to solve problems in more than one way became framed as, “Can you challenge yourself to solve this in more than one way?” or “Can you demonstrate flexibility in your thinking by solving in more than one way?”  When thinking was shared, the focus was not on having the thinking fully developed to answer a question correctly but rather on communicating thinking clearly.  This meant that I had to listen closely in order to give feedback that honoured the thinking rather than feedback that simply facilitated the next step in the learning progression.  This also meant that learners practiced paraphrasing what one another said and asking for clarification.  There was a growing awareness and acceptance that not everyone thinks the same way even when they are engaged with the same content and, if this is the case, justification and support are critical for supporting one’s thinking if we want others to understand us.  

Then the moment came where I realized that it wasn’t just about formative assessment driving concept attainment and nurturing life-long learning behaviours.  As a community of learners, they were actively beginning to practice tolerance.  Being exposed to different ways of thinking, knowing that there is no one ‘right’ way to solve a problem and having one’s thinking consistently challenged lays a foundation upon which one can embrace difference beyond the classroom.  Prior to this journey, I would have whole-heartedly supported the phrase, “It’s not what you do, it’s how you do it.”  HOW math is taught matters and formative assessment has an integral role in effective mathematics teaching.  Now, I have come to understand the ‘why.’  I understand that I embrace and practice the pedagogy that I do because I want my learners to be competent mathematics, I want them to be lifelong learners AND I want them to have a disposition that embraces and celebrates difference in our world.

Student Thoughts: Feedback from Ms. Steiner

Mara, Student, Saskatchewan

Ms. Steiner was an amazing Math teacher and she helped our classroom become the greatest "Mathematicians". Some of her strategies that helped us in math were the following;

Ms. Steiner did lots of white board work with challenging math questions. When someone knew the answer, they went up to the board and shared their answer. A lot of ooaa's happened in her classroom, meaning we got it and we were excited about it as a class. The class felt comfortable working together and sharing, making the math questions easy to learn.

At Ms. Steiner's teacher table, we would be asked to answer math questions in a verbal way of how we got the answer and what we were thinking. Saying the answer out loud to a teacher helped me feel more confident in Math.

We didn't do much text book work. She wanted us to expand our thinking and take on challenging math questions in our head. Ms. Steiner explains that in real life you won't have a pencil or notepad to figure the answer out.

Her math questions were based on real life situations. This helped me understand my mental math and estimate thinking.

Overall Ms. Steiner is a helpful, caring, understanding, math teacher. She was aware of our way of Math thinking and put a lot of patience, effort and pride into us. 

Student Thoughts: Why Feedback is Better than a Mark

Nicole, Student, Saskatchewan

I think that feedback is better than getting a mark.  If you get something wrong on your paper and you hand it in, and your teacher gives you feedback and asks you some questions, then you can go back and fix it. When you get feedback, you understand what you did well and what you need to fix for next time!

Feedback can help you make a difference on many things. It can help you improve on your school work and it can help you improve in life. It helps you understand your thinking and to look at things in new ways.  All marks do is tell you what you got wrong and what you got right. Marks don’t help you understand.

Sometimes people get mad when they see their mark and that doesn’t inspire them to try again. When you get your assignment handed back to you, the first thing that you look at is usually the mark. Then you look at the rest of your work. If you got a two on your assignment, you would probably get really mad. But if you would have gotten feedback, you probably wouldn’t feel that way. Instead it would inspire you to work harder and to understand and fix what you missed. It inspires people to do more. (Also to listen better in class.) Feedback can change your life and others too!
Be careful when giving feedback to others. If your tone is mean you could hurt the person. Giving feedback can sometimes be easier than receiving it. When you give feedback, you are telling someone what they did well and something that they need to work on next time. When you receive feedback you might not like it and you might even feel hurt or angry. That is why it is easier to give feedback. But learning to receive feedback is good and will help you to improve. Listen to feedback with an open mind and realize that someone really wants to help you.

CAfLN Member Profile

Katie White, Author, Educational Consultant, Coordinator of Learning, and Teacher
Who are you?
My name is Katie White and I live in Saskatchewan. I have many roles, mostly because I am a curious person and I like to try new things.  I hold a part-time contract as a Coordinator of Learning for the North East School Division and I am also currently working part-time as a senior ELA teacher online. I have written four books (two in draft form right now - which means a year of revisions) and before Covid, I spent many days working across Canada and the US  (now I do this virtually), supporting educators and leaders in the areas of assessment, instruction, creativity, leadership and RtI. I co-host a Twitter chat (#ATAssessment) and I am the editor of the CAfLN newsletter. Lastly (but definitely not least), I am part of an amazing family, who bring me joy and perspective every day.
 How do you spend your days in relation to education?
My days feel complex and busy, which is great exercise for my brain. Some days I facilitate virtual learning for educators in groups of 5-500. This means I have become very proficient at using Zoom and Teams! Other days, I plan upcoming workshops and events. I communicate with teachers and leaders, doing quite a bit of support through email. I engage my senior ELA students and offer lots of feedback on their work. If I have a book, blog or newsletter deadline looming, I spend my time writing (and re-writing). I connect with people through Twitter several times a day and I also work on my professional Instagram account when I have time to reflect. No two days are alike  and this is why I have always loved my career in education.
Why assessment for learning?
How do I count the ways? AfL is the bread and butter of the teaching-learning relationship. It is the connective tissue between plans and lived experiences--it is how teachers make strong instructional decisions and how students deepen their learning. AfL is a process that facilitates reflection and instructional agility. When AfL is missing from classrooms, things become very transactional. My heart hurts when I see students flounder, disengage, and comply because of a lack of authentic assessment for learning. AfL is the gateway to student agency and collective responsibility, while also building teacher confidence and efficacy. Learning to effectively engage in AfL is one of the best investments a teacher can make.
Why the Canadian Assessment for Learning Network?
Honestly, I stumbled on this group when the annual conference was hosted in Saskatoon due sudden and unexpected circumstances. I shared my work in a breakout session and met people with whom I remain connected to this day! The network is the best part of CAfLN. The people in this community are committed, creative, passionate, and thoughtful. Their conferences are unlike any others I have attended. Multiple voices and perspectives are honoured and questions are as important as answers. This is exactly what I need in order to refuel and connect. These are my people.
Visit our Website to find out more about CAfLN!
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